Dr. Paul Héroux, PhD
Principles of Toxicology (2013)
License: CC BY-SA-NC
Toxicology studies the injurious effects of chemical and physical agents (including energy) on living organisms, observed as alterations in structure and function. The variety of injurious effects becomes apparent if we examine the major causes of death (Fl .I). Many of these diseases are caused or accelerated by exposure to toxic substances. Toxicity data from various bio-medical sciences document the effects of exposure to natural• or artificial agents.
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Author’s Toxicology Laboratory Website
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1. Scope of Toxicology
2. Risk Assessment
3. Targets and Bio-Transformation
5. Hemato- and Vascular Toxicity
10. Techniques In Vivo & In Vitro
11 . Pulmonary Toxicity
12. Reproductive Toxicity
13. Geno toxicity
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Seifert and Sutton, Educational Psychology (2009)
From the authors, “All in all, we hope that you find Educational Psychology a useful and accessible part of your education. If you are preparing to be a teacher, good luck with your studies and your future! If you are an instructor, good luck with helping your students learn about this subject!”
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Original Source: Global Text Project
Table of Contents
1. The changing teaching profession and you.
- The joys of teaching
- Are there also challenges to teaching?
- Teaching is different from in the past
- How educational psychology can help
2. The learning process
- Teachers’ perspectives on learning
- Major theories and models of learning
3. Student development.
- Why development matters.
- Physical development during the school years
- Cognitive development: the theory of Jean Piaget
- Social development: relationships,personal motives, and morality
- Moral development: forming a sense of rights and responsibilities
- Understanding “the typical student” versus understanding students.
4. Student diversity
- Individual styles of learning and thinking.
- Multiple intelligences.
- Gifted and talented students
- Gender differences in the classroom
- Differences in cultural expectations and styles
- Oppositional cultural identity.
- Accommodating cultural diversity in practice.
5. Students with special educational needs
- Look at these three people from the past. All were assigned marginal status in society because of beliefs about disabilities:.
- Growing support for people with disabilities: legislation and its effects
- Responsibilities of teachers for students with disabilities.
- Categories of disabilities—and their ambiguities
- Learning disabilities.
- Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder.
- Intellectual disabilities.
- Behavioral disorders.
- Physical disabilities and sensory impairments
- The value of including students with special needs
6. Student motivation
- Motives as behavior
- Motives as goals.
- Motives as interests.
- Motives related to attributions
- Motivation as self-efficacy.
- Motivation as self-determination
- Expectancy x value: effects on students’ motivation
- TARGET: a model for integrating ideas about motivation.
7. Classroom management and the learning environment
- Why classroom management matters
- Preventing management problems by focusing students on learning.
- Responding to student misbehavior.
- Keeping management issues in perspective.
8. The nature of classroom communication
- Communication in classrooms vs communication elsewhere.
- Effective verbal communication.
- Effective nonverbal communication.
- Structures of participation: effects on communication
- Communication styles in the classroom.
- Using classroom talk to stimulate students’ thinking
- The bottom line: messages sent, messages reconstructed
9. Facilitating complex thinking
- Forms of thinking associated with classroom learning
- Critical thinking
- Creative thinking
- Broad instructional strategies that stimulate complex thinking
- Teacher-directed instruction
- Student-centered models of learning.
- Inquiry learning
- Cooperative learning.
- Examples of cooperative and collaborative learning
- Instructional strategies: an abundance of choices.
10. Planning instruction
- Selecting general learning goals.
- Formulating learning objectives
- Differentiated instruction and response to intervention.
- Students as a source of instructional goals.
- Enhancing student learning through a variety of resources.
- Creating bridges among curriculum goals and students’ prior experiences.
- Planning for instruction as well as for learning.
11. Teacher-made assessment strategies.
- Basic concepts.
- Assessment for learning: an overview of the process
- Selecting appropriate assessment techniques I: high quality assessments
- Absence of bias
- Selecting appropriate assessment techniques II: types of teacher-made assessmentsSelected response items
- Constructed response items
- Assessment that enhances motivation and student confidence
- Teachers’ purposes and beliefs
- Choosing assessments
- Providing feedback
- Self and peer assessment
- Adjusting instruction based on assessment.
- Communication with parents and guardians.
- Action research: studying yourself and your students.
- Grading and reporting
12. Standardized and other formal assessments
- Basic concepts.
- High-stakes testing by states
- International testing.
- International comparisons
- Understanding test results.
- Issues with standardized tests
Appendices and Resources
- Appendix A: Preparing for licensure.
- Appendix B: Deciding for yourself about the research
- Appendix C: The reflective practitioner.
- Resources for professional development and learning
- Reading and understanding professional articles
- Action research: hearing from teachers about improving practice.
- The challenges of action research.
- Benefiting from all kinds of research