►TBQ Editors, "Anatomy and Physiology" Volume 2 of 3 (2015)

This textbook is an Open Education Resource provided under a Creative Commons license (CC-BY), permitting the copying, printing, repurposing and redistribution of all or some of its contents.

Volume 2, Units 3 &4, Chapters 12 – 21, pages 473 – 971, plus complete table of contents and index

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Other Volumes
Volume 1, Units 1 & 2, Chapters 1 – 11, p. 1 – 472, plus complete table of contents and index
Volume 3, Units 5 & 6, Chapter 22 – 28, p. 973 – 1270, plus complete table of contents and index

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Textbook Provenance: Originally published by OpenStax College (Rice University) See the front matter of any volume for complete provenance.

Table of Contents

Volume 1 (Units 1 & 2)

Unit 1: Levels of Organization
An Introduction to the Human Body
Overview of Anatomy and Physiology
Structural Organization of the Human Body
Functions of Human Life
Requirements for Human Life
Homeostasis
Anatomical Terminology
Medical Imaging
The Chemical Level of Organization
Elements and Atoms: The Building Blocks of Matter
Chemical Bonds
Chemical Reactions
Inorganic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
Organic Compounds Essential to Human Functioning
The Cellular Level of Organization
. The Cell Membrane
. The Cytoplasm and Cellular Organelles
. The Nucleus and DNA Replication
. Protein Synthesis
. Cell Growth and Division
. Cellular Differentiation
The Tissue Level of Organization
. Types of Tissues
. Epithelial Tissue
. Connective Tissue Supports and Protects
. Muscle Tissue and Motion
. Nervous Tissue Mediates Perception and Response
. Tissue Injury and Aging

Unit 2: Support and Movement
The Integumentary System
. Layers of the Skin
. Accessory Structures of the Skin
. Functions of the Integumentary System
. Diseases, Disorders, and Injuries of the Integumentary System
Bone Tissue and the Skeletal System
. The Functions of the Skeletal System
. Bone Classification
. Bone Structure
. Bone Formation and Development
. Fractures: Bone Repair
. Exercise, Nutrition, Hormones, and Bone Tissue
. Calcium Homeostasis: Interactions of the Skeletal System and Other Organ Systems .
Axial Skeleton
. Divisions of the Skeletal System
. The Skull
. The Vertebral Column
. The Thoracic Cage
. Embryonic Development of the Axial Skeleton
The Appendicular Skeleton
. The Pectoral Girdle
. Bones of the Upper Limb
. The Pelvic Girdle and Pelvis
. Bones of the Lower Limb
. Development of the Appendicular Skeleton
Joints
. Classification of Joints
. Fibrous Joints
. Cartilaginous Joints
. Synovial Joints
. Types of Body Movements
. Anatomy of Selected Synovial Joints
. Development of Joints
Muscle Tissue
. Overview of Muscle Tissues
. Skeletal Muscle
. Muscle Fiber Contraction and Relaxation
. Nervous System Control of Muscle Tension
. Types of Muscle Fibers
. Exercise and Muscle Performance
. Cardiac Muscle Tissue
. Smooth Muscle
. Development and Regeneration of Muscle Tissue
The Muscular System
Interactions of Skeletal Muscles, Their Fascicle Arrangement, and Their Lever Systems
Naming Skeletal Muscles
Axial Muscles of the Head, Neck, and Back
Axial Muscles of the Abdominal Wall and Thorax
Muscles of the Pectoral Girdle and Upper Limbs
Appendicular Muscles of the Pelvic Girdle and Lower Limbs

Volume 2 (Units 3 & 4)

Unit 3 : Regulation, Integration, and Control
The Nervous System and Nervous Tissue
Basic Structure and Function of the Nervous System
Nervous Tissue
The Function of Nervous Tissue
The Action Potential
Communication Between Neurons
Anatomy of the Nervous System
. The Embryologic Perspective
. The Central Nervous System
. Circulation and the Central Nervous System
. The Peripheral Nervous System
The Brain and Cranial Nerves
. Sensory Perception
. Central Processing
. Motor Responses
The Autonomic Nervous System
. Divisions of the Autonomic Nervous System
. Autonomic Reflexes and Homeostasis
. Central Control
. Drugs that Affect the Autonomic System
The Neurological Exam
. Overview of the Neurological Exam
. The Mental Status Exam
. The Cranial Nerve Exam
. The Sensory and Motor Exams
. The Coordination and Gait Exams
The Endocrine System
. An Overview of the Endocrine System
. Hormones
. The Pituitary Gland and Hypothalamus
. The Thyroid Gland
. The Parathyroid Glands
. The Adrenal Glands
. The Pineal Gland
. Gonadal and Placental Hormones
. The Endocrine Pancreas
. Organs with Secondary Endocrine Functions
. Development and Aging of the Endocrine System

Unit 4 : Fluids and Transport
The Cardiovascular System: Blood
. An Overview of Blood
. Production of the Formed Elements
. Erythrocytes
. Leukocytes and Platelets
. Hemostasis
. Blood Typing
The Cardiovascular System: The Heart
. Heart Anatomy
. Cardiac Muscle and Electrical Activity
. Cardiac Cycle
. Cardiac Physiology
. Development of the Heart
The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation
. Structure and Function of Blood Vessels
. Blood Flow, Blood Pressure, and Resistance
. Capillary Exchange
. Homeostatic Regulation of the Vascular System
. Circulatory Pathways
. Development of Blood Vessels and Fetal Circulation
The Lymphatic and Immune System
Anatomy of the Lymphatic and Immune Systems
Barrier Defenses and the Innate Immune Response
The Adaptive Immune Response: T lymphocytes and Their Functional Types
The Adaptive Immune Response: B-lymphocytes and Antibodies
The Immune Response against Pathogens
Diseases Associated with Depressed or Overactive Immune Responses
Transplantation and Cancer Immunology

Volume 3 (Units 5 & 6)

Unit 5: Energy, Maintenance, and Environmental Exchange
The Respiratory System
Organs and Structures of the Respiratory System
The Lungs
The Process of Breathing
Gas Exchange
Transport of Gases
Modifications in Respiratory Functions
Embryonic Development of the Respiratory System
The Digestive System
. Overview of the Digestive System
. Digestive System Processes and Regulation
. The Mouth, Pharynx, and Esophagus
. The Stomach
. The Small and Large Intestines
. Accessory Organs in Digestion: The Liver, Pancreas, and Gallbladder
. Chemical Digestion and Absorption: A Closer Look
Metabolism and Nutrition
. Overview of Metabolic Reactions
. Carbohydrate Metabolism
. Lipid Metabolism
. Protein Metabolism
. Metabolic States of the Body
. Energy and Heat Balance
. Nutrition and Diet
The Urinary System
. Physical Characteristics of Urine
. Gross Anatomy of Urine Transport
. Gross Anatomy of the Kidney
. Microscopic Anatomy of the Kidney
. Physiology of Urine Formation
. Tubular Reabsorption
. Regulation of Renal Blood Flow
. Endocrine Regulation of Kidney Function
. Regulation of Fluid Volume and Composition
. The Urinary System and Homeostasis
Fluid, Electrolyte, and Acid-Base Balance
. Body Fluids and Fluid Compartments
. Water Balance
. Electrolyte Balance
. Acid-Base Balance
. Disorders of Acid-Base Balance

Unit 6: Human Development and the Continuity of Life
The Reproductive System
. Anatomy and Physiology of the Male Reproductive System
. Anatomy and Physiology of the Female Reproductive System
. Development of the Male and Female Reproductive Systems
Development and Inheritance
. Fertilization
. Embryonic Development
. Fetal Development
. Maternal Changes During Pregnancy, Labor, and Birth
. Adjustments of the Infant at Birth and Postnatal Stages
. Lactation
. Patterns of Inheritance
Index

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