Category Archives: Research

Education Domains

These the permitted domains to self-register for online exams at our Testing Site

Domain   Type   Sponsoring Organization   edu dom

Source: https://www.iana.org/domains/root/db note:.edu concatenated to country codes.

.ac country-code Network Information Center (AC Domain Registry) c/o Cable and Wireless (Ascension Island) .edu.ac
.ad country-code Andorra Telecom .edu.ad
.ae country-code Telecommunication Regulatory Authority (TRA) .edu.ae
.aero sponsored Societe Internationale de Telecommunications Aeronautique (SITA INC USA) .edu.aero
.af country-code Ministry of Communications and IT .edu.af
.ag country-code UHSA School of Medicine .edu.ag
.ai country-code Government of Anguilla .edu.ai
.al country-code Electronic and Postal Communications Authority – AKEP .edu.al
.am country-code Internet Society .edu.am
.an country-code University of Curacao .edu.an
.ao country-code Faculdade de Engenharia da Universidade Agostinho Neto .edu.ao
.aq country-code Antarctica Network Information Centre Limited .edu.aq
.ar country-code Presidencia de la Nación – Secretaría Legal y Técnica .edu.ar
.as country-code AS Domain Registry .edu.as
.asia sponsored DotAsia Organisation Ltd. .edu.asia
.at country-code nic.at GmbH .edu.at
.au country-code .au Domain Administration (auDA) .edu.au
.aw country-code SETAR .edu.aw
.ax country-code Ålands landskapsregering .edu.ax
.az country-code IntraNS .edu.az
.ba country-code Universtiy Telinformatic Centre (UTIC) .edu.ba
.bb country-code Government of Barbados Ministry of Economic Affairs and Development Telecommunications Unit .edu.bb
.bd country-code Ministry of Post & Telecommunications Bangladesh Secretariat .edu.bd
.be country-code DNS Belgium vzw/asbl .edu.be
.bf country-code ARCE-AutoritÈ de RÈgulation des Communications Electroniques .edu.bf
.bg country-code Register.BG .edu.bg
.bh country-code Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA) .edu.bh
.bi country-code Centre National de l’Informatique .edu.bi
.bj country-code Benin Telecoms S.A. .edu.bj
.bl country-code Not assigned .edu.bl
.bm country-code Registry General Ministry of Labour and Immigration .edu.bm
.bn country-code Brunei Darussalam Network Information Centre Sdn Bhd (BNNIC) .edu.bn
.bo country-code Agencia para el Desarrollo de la Información de la Sociedad en Bolivia .edu.bo
.bq country-code Not assigned .edu.bq
.br country-code Comite Gestor da Internet no Brasil .edu.br
.bs country-code The College of the Bahamas .edu.bs
.bt country-code Ministry of Information and Communications .edu.bt
.bv country-code UNINETT Norid A/S .edu.bv
.bw country-code Botswana Communications Regulatory Authority (BOCRA) .edu.bw
.by country-code Reliable Software Inc. .edu.by
.bz country-code University of Belize .edu.bz
.ca country-code Canadian Internet Registration Authority (CIRA) Autorite Canadienne pour les Enregistrements Internet (ACEI) .edu.ca
.cat sponsored Fundacio puntCAT .edu.cat
.cc country-code eNIC Cocos (Keeling) Islands Pty. Ltd. d/b/a Island Internet Services .edu.cc
.cd country-code Office Congolais des Postes et Télécommunications – OCPT .edu.cd
.cf country-code Societe Centrafricaine de Telecommunications (SOCATEL) .edu.cf
.cg country-code ONPT Congo and Interpoint Switzerland .edu.cg
.ch country-code SWITCH The Swiss Education & Research Network .edu.ch
.ci country-code INP-HB Institut National Polytechnique Felix Houphouet Boigny .edu.ci
.ck country-code Telecom Cook Islands Ltd. .edu.ck
.cl country-code NIC Chile (University of Chile) .edu.cl
.cm country-code Cameroon Telecommunications (CAMTEL) .edu.cm
.cn country-code China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) .edu.cn
.co country-code .CO Internet S.A.S. .edu.co
.coop sponsored DotCooperation LLC .edu.coop
.cr country-code National Academy of Sciences Academia Nacional de Ciencias .edu.cr
.cu country-code CENIAInternet Industria y San Jose Capitolio Nacional .edu.cu
.cv country-code Agência Nacional das Comunicações (ANAC) .edu.cv
.cw country-code University of Curacao .edu.cw
.cx country-code Christmas Island Internet Administration Limited .edu.cx
.cy country-code University of Cyprus .edu.cy
.cz country-code CZ.NIC, z.s.p.o .edu.cz
.de country-code DENIC eG .edu.de
.dj country-code Djibouti Telecom S.A .edu.dj
.dk country-code Dansk Internet Forum .edu.dk
.dm country-code DotDM Corporation .edu.dm
.do country-code Pontificia Universidad Catolica Madre y Maestra Recinto Santo Tomas de Aquino .edu.do
.dz country-code CERIST .edu.dz
.ec country-code NIC.EC (NICEC) S.A. .edu.ec
.edu sponsored EDUCAUSE .edu.edu
.ee country-code Eesti Interneti Sihtasutus (EIS) .edu.ee
.eg country-code Egyptian Universities Network (EUN) Supreme Council of Universities .edu.eg
.eh country-code Not assigned .edu.eh
.er country-code Eritrea Telecommunication Services Corporation (EriTel) .edu.er
.es country-code Red.es .edu.es
.et country-code Ethio telecom .edu.et
.eu country-code EURid vzw/asbl .edu.eu
.fi country-code Finnish Communications Regulatory Authority .edu.fi
.fj country-code The University of the South Pacific IT Services .edu.fj
.fk country-code Falkland Islands Government .edu.fk
.fm country-code FSM Telecommunications Corporation .edu.fm
.fo country-code FO Council .edu.fo
.fr country-code Association Française pour le Nommage Internet en Coopération (A.F.N.I.C.) .edu.fr
.ga country-code Agence Nationale des Infrastructures Numériques et des Fréquences (ANINF) .edu.ga
.gb country-code Reserved Domain – IANA .edu.gb
.gd country-code The National Telecommunications Regulatory Commission (NTRC) .edu.gd
.ge country-code Caucasus Online .edu.ge
.gf country-code Net Plus .edu.gf
.gg country-code Island Networks Ltd. .edu.gg
.gh country-code Network Computer Systems Limited .edu.gh
.gi country-code Sapphire Networks .edu.gi
.gl country-code TELE Greenland A/S .edu.gl
.gm country-code GM-NIC .edu.gm
.gn country-code Centre National des Sciences Halieutiques de Boussoura .edu.gn
.gov sponsored General Services Administration Attn: QTDC, 2E08 (.gov Domain Registration) .edu.gov
.gp country-code Networking Technologies Group .edu.gp
.gq country-code GETESA .edu.gq
.gr country-code ICS-FORTH GR .edu.gr
.gs country-code Government of South Georgia and South Sandwich Islands (GSGSSI) .edu.gs
.gt country-code Universidad del Valle de Guatemala .edu.gt
.gu country-code University of Guam Computer Center .edu.gu
.gw country-code Autoridade Reguladora Nacional – Tecnologias de Informação e Comunicação da Guiné-Bissau .edu.gw
.gy country-code University of Guyana .edu.gy
.hk country-code Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Ltd. .edu.hk
.hm country-code HM Domain Registry .edu.hm
.hn country-code Red de Desarrollo Sostenible Honduras .edu.hn
.hr country-code CARNet – Croatian Academic and Research Network .edu.hr
.ht country-code Consortium FDS/RDDH .edu.ht
.hu country-code Council of Hungarian Internet Providers (CHIP) .edu.hu
.id country-code Perkumpulan Pengelola Nama Domain Internet Indonesia (PANDI) .edu.id
.ie country-code University College Dublin Computing Services Computer Centre .edu.ie
.il country-code Internet Society of Israel .edu.il
.im country-code Isle of Man Government .edu.im
.in country-code National Internet Exchange of India .edu.in
.int sponsored Internet Assigned Numbers Authority .edu.int
.io country-code IO Top Level Domain Registry Cable and Wireless .edu.io
.iq country-code Communications and Media Commission (CMC) .edu.iq
.ir country-code Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences .edu.ir
.is country-code ISNIC – Internet Iceland ltd. .edu.is
.it country-code IIT – CNR .edu.it
.je country-code Island Networks (Jersey) Ltd. .edu.je
.jm country-code University of West Indies .edu.jm
.jo country-code National Information Technology Center (NITC) .edu.jo
.jobs sponsored Employ Media LLC .edu.jobs
.jp country-code Japan Registry Services Co., Ltd. .edu.jp
.ke country-code Kenya Network Information Center (KeNIC) .edu.ke
.kg country-code AsiaInfo Telecommunication Enterprise .edu.kg
.kh country-code Telecommunication Regulator of Cambodia (TRC) .edu.kh
.ki country-code Ministry of Communications, Transport, and Tourism Development .edu.ki
.km country-code Comores Telecom .edu.km
.kn country-code Ministry of Finance, Sustainable Development Information & Technology .edu.kn
.kp country-code Star Joint Venture Company .edu.kp
.kr country-code Korea Internet & Security Agency (KISA) .edu.kr
.kw country-code Ministry of Communications .edu.kw
.ky country-code The Information and Communications Technology Authority .edu.ky
.kz country-code Association of IT Companies of Kazakhstan .edu.kz
.la country-code Lao National Internet Committee (LANIC), Ministry of Posts and Telecommunications .edu.la
.lb country-code American University of Beirut Computing and Networking Services .edu.lb
.lc country-code University of Puerto Rico .edu.lc
.li country-code Universitaet Liechtenstein .edu.li
.lk country-code Council for Information Technology LK Domain Registrar .edu.lk
.lr country-code Data Technology Solutions, Inc. .edu.lr
.ls country-code National University of Lesotho .edu.ls
.lt country-code Kaunas University of Technology .edu.lt
.lu country-code RESTENA .edu.lu
.lv country-code University of Latvia Institute of Mathematics and Computer Science Department of Network Solutions (DNS) .edu.lv
.ly country-code General Post and Telecommunication Company .edu.ly
.ma country-code Agence Nationale de Réglementation des Télécommunications (ANRT) .edu.ma
.mc country-code Gouvernement de Monaco Direction des Communications Electroniques .edu.mc
.md country-code MoldData S.E. .edu.md
.me country-code Government of Montenegro .edu.me
.mf country-code Not assigned .edu.mf
.mg country-code NIC-MG (Network Information Center Madagascar) .edu.mg
.mh country-code Office of the Cabinet .edu.mh
.mil sponsored DoD Network Information Center .edu.mil
.mk country-code Macedonian Academic Research Network Skopje .edu.mk
.ml country-code Agence des Technologies de l’Information et de la Communication .edu.ml
.mm country-code Ministry of Communications, Posts & Telegraphs .edu.mm
.mn country-code Datacom Co., Ltd. .edu.mn
.mo country-code Bureau of Telecommunications Regulation (DSRT) .edu.mo
.mobi sponsored Afilias Technologies Limited dba dotMobi .edu.mobi
.mp country-code Saipan Datacom, Inc. .edu.mp
.mq country-code MEDIASERV .edu.mq
.mr country-code Université des Sciences, de Technologie et de Médecine .edu.mr
.ms country-code MNI Networks Ltd. .edu.ms
.mt country-code NIC (Malta) .edu.mt
.mu country-code Internet Direct Ltd .edu.mu
.museum sponsored Museum Domain Management Association .edu.museum
.mv country-code Dhiraagu Pvt. Ltd. (DHIVEHINET) .edu.mv
.mw country-code Malawi Sustainable Development Network Programme (Malawi SDNP) .edu.mw
.mx country-code NIC-Mexico ITESM – Campus Monterrey .edu.mx
.my country-code MYNIC Berhad .edu.my
.mz country-code Centro de Informatica de Universidade Eduardo Mondlane .edu.mz
.na country-code Namibian Network Information Center .edu.na
.nc country-code Office des Postes et Telecommunications .edu.nc
.ne country-code SONITEL .edu.ne
.nf country-code Norfolk Island Data Services .edu.nf
.ng country-code Nigeria Internet Registration Association .edu.ng
.ni country-code Universidad Nacional del Ingernieria Centro de Computo .edu.ni
.nl country-code SIDN (Stichting Internet Domeinregistratie Nederland) .edu.nl
.no country-code UNINETT Norid A/S .edu.no
.np country-code Mercantile Communications Pvt. Ltd. .edu.np
.nr country-code CENPAC NET .edu.nr
.nu country-code The IUSN Foundation .edu.nu
.nz country-code InternetNZ .edu.nz
.om country-code Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA) .edu.om
.pa country-code Universidad Tecnologica de Panama .edu.pa
.pe country-code Red Cientifica Peruana .edu.pe
.pf country-code Gouvernement de la Polynésie française .edu.pf
.pg country-code PNG DNS Administration Vice Chancellors Office The Papua New Guinea University of Technology .edu.pg
.ph country-code PH Domain Foundation .edu.ph
.pk country-code PKNIC .edu.pk
.pl country-code Research and Academic Computer Network .edu.pl
.pm country-code Association Française pour le Nommage Internet en Coopération (A.F.N.I.C.) .edu.pm
.pn country-code Pitcairn Island Administration .edu.pn
.post sponsored Universal Postal Union .edu.post
.pr country-code Gauss Research Laboratory Inc. .edu.pr
.ps country-code Ministry Of Telecommunications & Information Technology, Government Computer Center. .edu.ps
.pt country-code Associação DNS.PT .edu.pt
.pw country-code Micronesia Investment and Development Corporation .edu.pw
.py country-code NIC-PY .edu.py
.qa country-code Communications Regulatory Authority .edu.qa
.re country-code Association Française pour le Nommage Internet en Coopération (A.F.N.I.C.) .edu.re
.ro country-code National Institute for R&D in Informatics .edu.ro
.rs country-code Serbian National Internet Domain Registry (RNIDS) .edu.rs
.ru country-code Coordination Center for TLD RU .edu.ru
.rw country-code Rwanda Information Communication and Technology Association (RICTA) .edu.rw
.sa country-code Communications and Information Technology Commission .edu.sa
.sb country-code Solomon Telekom Company Limited .edu.sb
.sc country-code VCS Pty Ltd .edu.sc
.sd country-code Sudan Internet Society .edu.sd
.se country-code The Internet Infrastructure Foundation .edu.se
.sg country-code Singapore Network Information Centre (SGNIC) Pte Ltd .edu.sg
.sh country-code Government of St. Helena .edu.sh
.si country-code Academic and Research Network of Slovenia (ARNES) .edu.si
.sj country-code UNINETT Norid A/S .edu.sj
.sk country-code SK-NIC, a.s. .edu.sk
.sl country-code Sierratel .edu.sl
.sm country-code Telecom Italia San Marino S.p.A. .edu.sm
.sn country-code Universite Cheikh Anta Diop NIC Senegal .edu.sn
.so country-code Ministry of Post and Telecommunications .edu.so
.sr country-code Telesur .edu.sr
.ss country-code Not assigned .edu.ss
.st country-code Tecnisys .edu.st
.su country-code Russian Institute for Development of Public Networks (ROSNIIROS) .edu.su
.sv country-code SVNet .edu.sv
.sx country-code SX Registry SA B.V. .edu.sx
.sy country-code National Agency for Network Services (NANS) .edu.sy
.sz country-code University of Swaziland Department of Computer Science .edu.sz
.tc country-code Melrex TC .edu.tc
.td country-code Société des télécommunications du Tchad (SOTEL TCHAD) .edu.td
.tel sponsored Telnic Ltd. .edu.tel
.tf country-code Association Française pour le Nommage Internet en Coopération (A.F.N.I.C.) .edu.tf
.tg country-code Cafe Informatique et Telecommunications .edu.tg
.th country-code Thai Network Information Center Foundation .edu.th
.tj country-code Information Technology Center .edu.tj
.tk country-code Telecommunication Tokelau Corporation (Teletok) .edu.tk
.tl country-code Ministry of Transport and Communications; National Division of Information and Technology .edu.tl
.tm country-code TM Domain Registry Ltd .edu.tm
.tn country-code Agence Tunisienne d’Internet .edu.tn
.to country-code Government of the Kingdom of Tonga H.R.H. Crown Prince Tupouto’a c/o Consulate of Tonga .edu.to
.tp country-code Retired .edu.tp
.tr country-code Middle East Technical University Department of Computer Engineering .edu.tr
.travel sponsored Tralliance Registry Management Company, LLC. .edu.travel
.tt country-code University of the West Indies Faculty of Engineering .edu.tt
.tv country-code Ministry of Finance and Tourism .edu.tv
.tw country-code Taiwan Network Information Center (TWNIC) .edu.tw
.tz country-code Tanzania Network Information Centre (tzNIC) .edu.tz
.ua country-code Hostmaster Ltd. .edu.ua
.ug country-code Uganda Online Ltd. .edu.ug
.uk country-code Nominet UK .edu.uk
.um country-code Not assigned .edu.um
.us country-code NeuStar, Inc. .edu.us
.uy country-code SeCIU – Universidad de la Republica .edu.uy
.uz country-code Computerization and Information Technologies Developing Center UZINFOCOM .edu.uz
.va country-code Holy See Secretariat of State Department of Telecommunications .edu.va
.vc country-code Ministry of Telecommunications, Science, Technology and Industry .edu.vc
.ve country-code Comisión Nacional de Telecomunicaciones (CONATEL) .edu.ve
.vg country-code Telecommunications Regulatory Commission of the Virgin Islands .edu.vg
.vi country-code Virgin Islands Public Telcommunications System c/o COBEX Internet Services .edu.vi
.vn country-code Ministry of Information and Communications of Socialist Republic of Viet Nam .edu.vn
.vu country-code Telecom Vanuatu Limited .edu.vu
.wf country-code Association Française pour le Nommage Internet en Coopération (A.F.N.I.C.) .edu.wf
.ws country-code Government of Samoa Ministry of Foreign Affairs & Trade .edu.ws
.한국 country-code KISA (Korea Internet & Security Agency) .edu.한국
country-code National Internet Exchange of India .edu
country-code Not assigned .edu
.қаз country-code Association of IT Companies of Kazakhstan .edu.қаз
.срб country-code Serbian National Internet Domain Registry (RNIDS) .edu.срб
.бел country-code Reliable Software Inc. .edu.бел
country-code Singapore Network Information Centre (SGNIC) Pte Ltd .edu
.мкд country-code Macedonian Academic Research Network Skopje .edu.мкд
.中国 country-code China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) .edu.中国
.中國 country-code China Internet Network Information Center (CNNIC) .edu.中國
.భారత్ country-code National Internet Exchange of India .edu.భారత్
.ලංකා country-code LK Domain Registry .edu.ලංකා
.ભારત country-code National Internet Exchange of India .edu.ભારત
.भारत country-code National Internet Exchange of India .edu.भारत
.укр country-code Ukrainian Network Information Centre (UANIC), Inc. .edu.укр
.香港 country-code Hong Kong Internet Registration Corporation Ltd. .edu.香港
.台湾 country-code Taiwan Network Information Center (TWNIC) .edu.台湾
.台灣 country-code Taiwan Network Information Center (TWNIC) .edu.台灣
.мон country-code Datacom Co.,Ltd .edu.мон
.الجزائر country-code CERIST .edu.الجزائر
.عمان country-code Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA) .edu.عمان
.ایران country-code Institute for Research in Fundamental Sciences (IPM) .edu.ایران
.امارات country-code Telecommunications Regulatory Authority (TRA) .edu.امارات
.پاکستان country-code Not assigned .edu.پاکستان
.الاردن country-code National Information Technology Center (NITC) .edu.الاردن
.بھارت country-code National Internet Exchange of India .edu.بھارت
.المغرب country-code Agence Nationale de Réglementation des Télécommunications (ANRT) .edu.المغرب
.السعودية country-code Communications and Information Technology Commission .edu.السعودية
.سودان country-code Sudan Internet Society .edu.سودان
.عراق country-code Not assigned .edu.عراق
.مليسيا country-code MYNIC Berhad .edu.مليسيا
.澳門 country-code Not assigned .edu.澳門
.გე country-code Information Technologies Development Center (ITDC) .edu.გე
.ไทย country-code Thai Network Information Center Foundation .edu.ไทย
.سورية country-code National Agency for Network Services (NANS) .edu.سورية
.рф country-code Coordination Center for TLD RU .edu.рф
.تونس country-code Agence Tunisienne d’Internet .edu.تونس
.ελ country-code Not assigned .edu.ελ
.ਭਾਰਤ country-code National Internet Exchange of India .edu.ਭਾਰਤ
.مصر country-code National Telecommunication Regulatory Authority – NTRA .edu.مصر
.قطر country-code Communications Regulatory Authority .edu.قطر
.இலங்கை country-code LK Domain Registry .edu.இலங்கை
.இந்தியா country-code National Internet Exchange of India .edu.இந்தியா
.հայ country-code Internet Society .edu.հայ
.新加坡 country-code Singapore Network Information Centre (SGNIC) Pte Ltd .edu.新加坡
.فلسطين country-code Ministry of Telecom & Information Technology (MTIT) .edu.فلسطين
.xxx sponsored ICM Registry LLC .edu.xxx
.ye country-code TeleYemen .edu.ye
.yt country-code Association Française pour le Nommage Internet en Coopération (A.F.N.I.C.) .edu.yt
.za country-code ZA Domain Name Authority .edu.za
.zm country-code Zambia Information and Communications Technology Authority (ZICTA) .edu.zm
.zw country-code Postal and Telecommunications Regulatory Authority of Zimbabwe (POTRAZ) .edu.zw

How OER Texts Save Many $$$

This is an example of cross-mapping real world course syllabi to an open textbook, demonstrating that the open textbook covers all or most of the course content, thus permitting easy adoption and saving students thousands of dollars.

We compared Rutger University’s undergraduate Biology Course syllabi with our open biology textbooks. (See tables below). Rutger’s Bio 101 closely matches College Biology Vol 3 while their Bio 102 closely matches College Biology Vol 1.

Bio 101 & 102’s assigned textbook (Fall 2013) is Biology: Concepts & Investigations by M. Hoefnagels (2nd edition, 2011) Originally $225, now $39.51 used, rent $26.00 (Amazon.com).

The current edition is Biology: Concepts & Investigations by M. Hoefnagels (3rd edition, 2011) $211. Rent $94. (Amazon.com)

We’re convinced that the best choice is College Biology where the PDF is free and the print format per volume1 is only $39.20.

Why rent when you can own? Why pay 6 to 7 times more for the same content?

Depending up the next class-assigned textbook, saving range from $39.00 to $172 per student, which amounts to thousands of dollars per semester per college.

BTW – Textbook Equity’s Editors will customize any of our open textbooks to map to your class syllabus, create color textbooks, and add your own material. Output to PDF and print. (Example cross-mapping analysis below.)

Also See Textbook Equity College Services.
Service Fees. Write editors@textbookequity.org

Here’s the Rutger’s example:

Rutger University’s undergraduate biology syllabi cross-mapped to College Biology’s open licensed textbook volumes 1and 3.

Bio 101 Syllabus Topic College Biology’s Matching Chapter(s)
Week 1 Overview/Excretory System Chapter 41: Osmotic Regulation and Excretion
Week 2 Respiratory/Circulatory System Chapter 39: The Respiratory System / Chapter 40: The Circulatory System
Week 3 Nervous System/Senses Chapter 35: The Nervous System/Chapter 36: Sensory Systems
Week 4 Reproduction/ Embryonic Develop Chapter 43: Animal Reproduction and Development
Week 6 Immune System Chapter 42: The Immune System
Week 7 Plant Anatomy & Function Chapter 30: Plant Form and Physiology
Week 8 Plant Reproduction/Development Chapter 32: Plant Reproduction
Week 9 Plant Diversity Chapter 25: Seedless Plants, Chapter 26: Seed Plants
Week 10 Fungi Chapter 24: Fungi
Week 11 Animal Diversity Chapter 27: Introduction to Animal Diversity
Week 13 Population Ecology Chapter 45: Population and Community Ecology
Week 14 Communities & Ecosystems Chapter 46: Ecosystems
Week 15 Biodiversity Chapter 47: Conservation Biology and Biodiversity

______________________________________________________________________________

Bio 102 Syllabus Topics College Biology’s Matching Chapter(s)
Week 1 Overview/Chemistry of Life Unit 1. The Chemistry of Life (Chap 1, 2, 3)
Week 2 Cells Unit 2. The Cell (Chap 4,5)
Week 3 The Energy of Life Chapter 6: Metabolism, Chapter 7: Cellular Respiration
Week 4 Photosynthesis Chapter 8: Photosynthesis
Week 6 Mitosis & Cell Cycle Chapter 10: Cell Reproduction
Week 7 Meiosis & Sexual Reproduction Chapter 11: Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction
Week 8 DNA & Gene Function Chapter 14: DNA Structure and Function
Week 10 Patterns of Inheritance Chapter 12: Mendel’s Experiments and Heredity, Chapter 13: Modern Understandings of Inheritance
Week 11 DNA Technology Chapter 17: Biotechnology and Genomics
Week 12 From the Big Bang to Life on Earth Chapter 20: Phylogenies and the History of Life
Week 13 Macro and Microevolution TBD
Week 14 Adaptation & Speciation Chapter 18: Evolution and the Origin of Species
Week 15 Animal Behavior TBD

A Textbook Price Study: 90% Ownership and Average Prices

In 1915 the most expensive textbook was about $2.50 for a Geometry textbook. (See “Textbook Prices in 1915“)  That is about $54 in today’s dollars.  Most geometry books today are around $70, or 30% above the price index rate.  More interesting, most of the textbooks in 1915 cost $1.50, which translates to $22 today.  Yet, based on the sample of 400 textbooks sold between 2010 and 2012 on Amazon.com (considered one of the cheapest sources of textbooks), the average price is $133 per textbook, or a staggering 6 times above the cost-of-living index rate.  Most textbooks range between $100 and $200 (80%). The primary reason that they cost so much is the ever increasing concentration of the textbook publishing industry through hundreds of acquisitions, resulting in the elimination of price competition, the established policies of schools that inhibit alternatives sources of textbooks, and somewhat the lack of awareness of professors about the cost of college textbooks they adopt for their classes.  There may be others, but those are the basic reasons that allowed textbook costs to soar for the past 100 years.

Based on a sample of 400 printed textbooks* sold by Amazon.com from the spring of 2010 through the spring of 2012:

  1. These 400 textbooks, covering 36 subjects, cost an average of $133, standard deviation is $36.  The most expensive textbook was a $256 chemistry textbook.  Chemistry, physics, business law, human anatomy, accounting, finance, math, economics, and calculus all had textbooks that cost more than $200.
  2. The subjects with the highest average cost were, in descending order, Engineering, Human Anatomy, Calculus, Chemistry, and Accounting.
  3. These 400 textbooks, on average, rose 4.4% from 2010 to 2012.  The STEM (science, technology, engineering, and math) textbooks rose 10.2% for the same period.
  4. Seventy six percent of the textbooks were in their 4th to 13th edition.
  5. Psychology was the most popular textbook making the top 100 for all four semesters, followed by biology, business, and chemistry.
  6. The top three parent publishers, Pearson, Cengage, and McGraw-Hill accounted for 74% of the textbooks sold, each with over a 20% share .  The other parent publishers (Georg von Holtzbrinck, John Wiley & Sons, Wolters Kluwer N.V, Reed Elsevier, Informa plc) provided 17%, and 14 other publishers, who accounted for the remaining 9%, had a 6% or less share.  (As a side note, another Textbook Equity study found that gross margin on textbooks by these publishers range from 68 to 72%.  There is plenty of money left over for extensive marketing and overhead salaries.)

Average price by Subject Amazon.com Top 100 Textbooks
Good for bench-marking. Generally, used and e-textbooks run about 70% of printed prices.  Rentals run about half.  Open textbooks run from free to 30%.  Campus bookstores – considerably higher than Amazon’s prices. (Actual out of pocket for class material may vary.)

______________________________________________
*Source of Data: Amazon.com Top 100 Textbooks Sold,  Spring 2010 – Spring 2012.

Top Community College Courses by Enrollment

 Sorted by Course Rank
Organization Course Title Rank Category
CCOTC Algebra, Elem, Pre(1) 1 Algebra
FLA College Algebra 1 Algebra
CCC Fall 2008 Mathematics, General                                                        1 Algebra
CSU/UC F2007 Business Administration and Management, General 1 Business
Washington State English Composition I 1 Engl
FLA Intermediate Algebra 2 Algebra
CCC Fall 2008 English                                                                     2 Engl
CCOTC English Composition I, II(2) 2 Engl
Washington State General Psychology 2 Psy
CSU/UC F2007 Psychology, General 2 Psy
FLA Elementary Algebra 3 Algebra
CSU/UC F2007 Biology/Biological Sciences, General  3 Biology
Washington State English Composition II 3 Engl
CCC Fall 2008 Physical Education                                                          3 PE
FLA Intro to Psychology 3 Psy
CCOTC Sociology, Intro(3) 3 Soc
FLA Pre-calculus 4 Algebra
CSU/UC F2007 Liberal Arts and Sciences/Liberal Studies 4 Liberal Arts
CCC Fall 2008 Psychology, General                                                         4 Psy
CCOTC Psychology, Intro(4) 4 Psy
Washington State Introduction To Sociology 4 Soc
CCC Fall 2008 Biology, General                                                            5 Biology
CCOTC Chemistry, Gen(5) 5 Chem
Washington State Introduction to Chemistry (inorganic) 5 Chem
CSU/UC F2007 Sociology 5 Soc
CCOTC Biology, Gen(6) 6 Biology
CSU/UC F2007 English Language and Literature, General  6 Engl
CCC Fall 2008 History                                                                     6 History
Washington State Precalculus I 6 Pre-Calc
Washington State General Biology w/Lab 7 Biology
FLA Freshman Composition Skills I 7 Engl Comp
CCOTC History, U.S. I, II(7) 7 History
CCC Fall 2008 Music                                                                       7 Music
CSU/UC F2007 Political Science and Government, General 7 Pol. Sci
FLA General Biology 8 Biology
Washington State Introduction To Business 8 Business
CCC Fall 2008 Chemistry, General                                                          8 Chem
CCOTC Speech Communications(8) 8 Commun
FLA Composition Skills II 8 English Comp
CSU/UC F2007 History, General 8 History
FLA United States History to 1877 8 History
FLA Music Appreciation 8 Music
CCOTC Human Anatomy, Physiology(9) 9 Anatomy
FLA General Chemistry (1 of 2) 9 Chem
CCC Fall 2008 Speech Communication                                                        9 Commun
FLA Human Nutrition 9 Health
FLA United States History after 1877 9 History
CSU/UC F2007 Health and Physical Education, General 9 PE
Washington State Lifespan Psychology 9 Psy
CCOTC Accounting, Intro(10) 10 Accounting
FLA College Chemistry I Laboratory 10 Chem
FLA Humanities I 10 Humanities
Washington State Spanish I 10 Lang
CCC Fall 2008 Pre-Algebra (Basic Math/Arithmetic)                                         10 Math Fund
CSU/UC F2007 Multi-/Interdisciplinary Studies, Other 10 Other
FLA Developmental Psychology: Life Span 10 Psy
Washington State Principles of Accounting I 11 Accounting
FLA American National Government 11 Civics
CSU/UC F2007 Criminal Justice/Safety Studies  11 Criminal Justice
FLA Diversity for Humanities 11 Humanities
CCC Fall 2008 Spanish                                                                     11 Lang
CCOTC Math, Fundamentals(11) 11 Math Fund
Washington State Human Anatomy and Physiology 1 12 Anatomy
CSU/UC F2007 Mechanical Engineering 12 Engineer
FLA Humanities II 12 Humanities
FLA Topics in Mathematics /Mathematics for Liberal Arts I 12 Math Fund
CCOTC Govt, Pol Sci.(12) 12 Pol. Sci
CCC Fall 2008 Writing                                                                     12 Writing
CSU/UC F2007 Art/Art Studies, General 13 Art
Washington State Microeconomics 13 Econ
CCOTC Spanish I(13) 13 Lang
FLA Mathematics for Liberal Arts II 13 Math Fund
CCC Fall 2008 Child Development/Early Care and Education         13 Psy
Washington State Introduction To Communication 14 Commun
CCOTC Criminal Justice, Intro(14) 14 Criminal Justice
CSU/UC F2007 Electrical, Electronics and Communications Engineering 14 Engineer
FLA Spanish I 14 Lang
CCC Fall 2008 Sociology                                                                   14 Soc
CSU/UC F2007 Accounting 15 Accounting
CCC Fall 2008 Accounting                                                                  15 Accounting
Washington State Public Speaking 15 Commun
CCOTC Econ(15) 15 Econ
FLA Introductory Sociology 15 Soc
Washington State Interpersonal Communicatn 16 Commun
CSU/UC F2007 Pre-Nursing Studies  16 Nursing
CCC Fall 2008 Registered Nursing                                                          16 Nursing
FLA Introduction to Statistics 16 Stat
CCOTC Statistics(16) 16 Stat
Washington State Macroeconomics 17 Econ
CSU/UC F2007 Civil Engineering, General 17 Engineer
CCOTC Green Technology(17) 17 Engineer
CCC Fall 2008 Political Science                                                           17 Pol. Sci
FLA Trigonometry 17 trig
CCC Fall 2008 Anatomy and Physiology                                                      18 Anatomy
CSU/UC F2007 Computer Science 18 C. Science
Washington State Calculus I 18 Calculus
CCOTC Physics(18) 18 Physics
FLA Anatomy and Physiology I 19 Anatomy
CCOTC Business, Intro(19) 19 Business
FLA Calculus I with Analytic Geometry 19 Calculus
FLA Calculus II w/ Analytic Geometry 19 Calculus
CCC Fall 2008 Administration of Justice                                                   19 Criminal Justice
CSU/UC F2007 Nursing – Registered Nurse Training (RN, ASN, BSN, MSN) 19 Nursing
Washington State Introduction To Philosophy 19 Phil
FLA General Physics w/Calculus I (2 sem seq) 19 Physics
FLA Anatomy and Physiology II 20 Anatomy
CCC Fall 2008 Art                                                                         20 Art
Washington State Microbiology 20 Biology
FLA Calculus III with Analytic Geometry 20 Calculus
FLA Differential Equations I 20 Calculus
CSU/UC F2007 Communication Studies/Speech Communication and Rhetoric 20 Commun
FLA Principles of Macroeconomics 20 econ
CCOTC TBD (20) 20 Other
FLA Physical Science (category) 20 Physical Sci.
FLA General Physics I (2 sem seq) 20 Physics
FLA General Biology/Core Biology 21 Biology
FLA Calculus for Management 21 Calculus
FLA Public Speaking 21 Commun
FLA Principles of Microeconomics 21 econ
FLA Biology (category) 22 Biology
Sources:
CCOTC Community College Open Textbook Collaborative
CCC Fall 2008 California Community Colleges
CSU/UC F2007 California State University/University of CA
Washington State Washington State
FLA Flordia Top 40

International Open Education Resource (OER) Links (2011)

The Global Text Project has published a document listing international open education resource (OER) links.  Continents include Africa, Asia, Australia, Europe, North America, and the rest of the world.   There are links to OER  View/Download

Excerpt:  “We are on the cusp of a global revolution in teaching and learning. Educators worldwide are developing a vast pool of educational resources on the Internet, open and free are for all to use.” -The Cape Town Open Education Declaration

Hurdles to Open Textbooks

runners jumping over hurdlesI am finding that the biggest impedance to open textbooks is not with instructors or supply, but college administrators, government administrators, and those who provide the money, including grant foundations.

Administrators’ primary job is to ensure the health, survival, and reputation of their institution. Their priority is to provide an education infrastructure that is capable of achieving the outcomes expected by formal and informal sources. They compete for funds and will avoid any activities, no matter how innovative, that will seem to risk the institution’s health, survival, and reputation. Those of us in the open textbook movement have so far failed to adequately demonstrate the low risk, the long-term value of open textbooks, and how to sustain them. For example, the loss of potential revenue from their bookstores alone is sufficient to continue with exclusivity agreements with traditional publishers. Besides, anyone providing open textbooks may be a “vaporware” organization. Traditional publishers have a solid longevity and reputation. Administrators are not risk takers.

Grant foundations’ primary job is to carry out their charter while complying with complex tax laws. Though many want innovation in both process and products, most of their money is given to status quo institutions, which makes sense since they must avoid any investments the IRS might consider as a “jeopardy investment.” They also fund projects that require approaches already established in some form. Foundations are not risk takers either.

The primary point is that the education industry and its supporting organizations are not constructed to innovate very quickly (i.e. within a generation.) What many are calling innovations is only innovative to the education industry. For those of us outside education we see the efforts and funding aimed at technological and pedagogical breakthroughs getting lost in organizational and institutional isolation and competitiveness. If they so desired all the heads of all the institutions could pull together their resources to quickly and efficiently provide open textbooks and ancillary resources.

My Solution? Demonstrate the commercial feasibility of open textbooks as a textbook competitor among the giants. Once the perceived risk is mitigated education institutions will adjust accordingly. Textbook prices will fall back into normal ranges. Economically, students and taxpayers will be much better off. And, naturally, the quality of textbooks will increase.

Textbook Selection Problems 90 Years Ago

Image Textbook SelectionIn 1922 educators were looking for objective methods for evaluating textbooks:

Text-book selection is obviously a process of making choices, and choices can be made in many ways. It is quite possible that certain texts have been chosen not because they were better tools of instruction than other books, but because the salesman urging their adoption had a more persuasive vocabulary, more agile and plastic sales methods, or was politically more canny than his competitors. Other texts have had large sales because they were or professed to be exponents of some pedagogical doctrine which momentarily hypnotized the buying agent. Better than the above, many texts have been adopted by schools because the proper authority, having studied the matter deliberately, chose those particular books.1

Franzen and Knight categorized their criteria as shown by their quote below.

The major criteria for selection of text-books are five:

  • (a) the factor of interest
  • (b) the factor of comprehension
  • (c) the permanent methods of study involved in the text
  • (d) the permanent value of content
  • (e) the mechanical construction of the text

 


1p. 13, “Textbook Selection“, R.H. Franzen and F.B. Knight, Warwick and York, Inc. Baltimore, MD 1922.
Franzen’s and Knight’s book (pdf) is in the Supplemental Materials section below.

Anatomy of a Textbook: Part I – Top 100 Textbooks on Amazon.com

top100bydiscipline

In attempting to answer the questions, “Are textbooks really too expensive?” and “What should they cost”, we analyzed Amazon.com’s top 100 textbooks sold in the spring of 2010, and discovered some interesting patterns along the way. Here are our preliminary observations: (More charts and graphs available for download at the end of this post.)

  • The #1 selling textbook is in Biology, #50 is a Calculus book, and #100 is in Psychology.
  • When looking at the number of textbooks in the top 100 by discipline the rankings are:
    • Business(#1)
    • Psychology (#2)
    • Biology (#3)
  • Interestingly enough, those three subjects add up to 39% of the top 100. Add in math and you have 47% of the textbooks in four subjects.
  • Half of the 14 Business textbooks are in Marketing.priceleveldistribution
  • The top 100 textbooks cost an average of $135, ranging from $65 to $256, σ ~$34. The median is $133.
  • The most expensive textbook is in Chemistry ($256), the least expensive Industrial Organization ($35). However, based on average cost per discipline the most expensive textbooks are:
    • Law ($205)
    • Engineering ($195)
    • Chemistry ($182)
    • Accounting ($177)
  • The range of prices by subject varies considerably. The average range of all the disciplines is $41. Nine disciplines have average ranges that are 50% higher than the lowest priced book. These are ($min – $max price): low high textbook prices
    • Chemistry ($134 – $256)
    • Math ($97 – $221)
    • Finance ($115 – $180)
    • Business ($35 – $193)
    • Biology ($96 – $178)
    • Statistics ($105 – $177)
    • Psychology ($79 – $146)
    • Speech/Communication ($53 – $154)
    • Sociology ($59 – $101)
  • The price per page ranges from $0.09 to $0.29, averaging $.18.
  • Each textbook, on average, is 789 pages, weighs 4 pounds, and occupies 109 cubic inches of space. (Cube root ~4.781 inches.)
  • There are 13 listed publishers of the 100 textbooks. When combined into their parent company, there are only five publishers, and the top three account for 85% of the top 100 textbook sales.  Are there implications for the Justice Department’s Antitrust Division?Top 100 Textbooks by Publisher

The full report contain introductory remarks, 12 graphs preliminary conclusions, and references: Anatomy of a Textbook Part I (pdf).